Wydanie 369(68)4 2023

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  • PozycjaOpen Access
    Selenium content in the ovaries of free-liwing Cervidae from nordeastern Poland
    (Wydawnictwo Uczelniane Zachodniopomorskiego Uniwersytetu Technologicznego w Szczecinie, 2024-03-01) Skibniewska, Ewa M.; Skibniewski , Michał; Vovk, Stakh S.; Hanusz, Ewa; Department of Biology of Animal Environment, Institute of Animal Science, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; Department of Morphological Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; Institute of Agriculture of the Carpathian region of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, Obroshyn, Lviv region, Ukraine; District Veterinary Inspectorate, Bystrzyca Kłodzka, Poland
    Selenium is counted among the trace elements necessary for the maintenance of metabolic processes occurring in the animal body, including the proper functioning of the reproductive system. The aim of the study conducted was to analyze the selenium content in the ovaries of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in an attempt to establish a range of reference values for individuals of these species. Selenium concentrations in tissues tested were determined using spectrofluorometric method after wet mineralization in HNO3 and HClO4 mixture. Ovaries Se concentrations ranged from 0.034–0.338 mg⋅kg−1 wet weight and 0.015–0.285 mg⋅kg−1 wet weight in roe deer and red deer respectively. Based on the results, it was found that the average selenium content was higher in the ovaries of red deer and was 0.11 while in roe deer it was 0.09 mg⋅kg−1 wet weight. The gonads of European roe deer were characterized by higher variability of the analyzed pa rameter in relation to samples obtained from female red deer. The coefficient of variation in their case was almost 90.1, while the value of the coefficient of variation for selenium content in the parenchymal layer of ovaries in red deer was almost 67.6.
  • PozycjaOpen Access
    Application of cannabidiol (CBD) in the pharmacotherapy of dogs and cats
    (Wydawnictwo Uczelniane Zachodniopomorskiego Uniwersytetu Technologicznego w Szczecinie, 2024-03-01) Skiba, Sergiusz; Kiraga , Łukasz; Crowley , Kijan; Miszczuk , Edyta; Jank, Michał; Chłopecka, Magdalena; Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Deprtment of Preclinical Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Med icine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Deprtment of Preclinical Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Med icine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Deprtment of Preclinical Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Med icine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Deprtment of Preclinical Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Med icine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Deprtment of Preclinical Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Med icine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Deprtment of Preclinical Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Med icine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
    Cannabinoids are a group of organic chemical compounds that affect the endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a biochemical system responsible for regulating many physiological and cognitive functions. It consists of endogenous cannabinoids, enzymes that regulate the biosynthesis and biodegradation of endogenous cannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors (CB1, CB2). It regulates cognitive processes in the central nervous system, as well as the functioning of the immune system and the proper course of the inflammatory reaction. There are three groups of canna binoids: endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids, and synthetic cannabinoids. Phytocannabinoids are obtained mainly for medical purposes from hemp inflorescences (Cannabis sativa). There are over 100 cannabinoids that have been isolated from Cannabis sativa tissues, the most well-known of which are: tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol, cannabigerol, tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabidivarin, cannabichromene. The widespread use of phytocannabinoids in medicine is limited by the possibility of undesirable psychoactive side effects, mainly due to one compound – THC. Unlike THC, CBD is devoid of psychogenic properties, which significantly affects the safety of therapy and does not generate legal problems. Hemp inflorescence extracts are successfully used in the treatment of many diseases in humans, although the use of hemp preparations in veterinary medicine has been unknown for many years. However, they have found documented use in the treatment of degenerative joint diseases, epilepsy, and behavioral disorders. This work aims to systematize and summarize the available knowledge on the use of cannabidiol in the treatment of canine and feline diseases.
  • PozycjaOpen Access
    Evaluation of reproductive performance, growth, slaughter traits and meat quality of black-and-tan rabbits kept in Poland
    (Wydawnictwo Uczelniane Zachodniopomorskiego Uniwersytetu Technologicznego w Szczecinie, 2024-03-01) Siudak, Zuzanna; Pałka, Sylwia; National Research Institute of Animal Production, Department of Small Livestock Breeding, Balice, Poland; University of Agriculture in Krakow, Department of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Ethology, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, Kraków, Poland
    Rabbit is a highly adaptable animal, but far-reaching animal improvement, and the use of additives in the form of antibiotics and growth promoters, has resulted in the production of overgrown, often unhealthy individuals. It would be impossible to keep them in a backyard environment or on the increasingly popular organic farms. Hence, less popular rabbit breeds that can provide livestock on farms with extensive production systems are being sought. Literature reports suggest that a breed worthy of consideration is the Tan breed. Scientific studies comparing rearing, fattening and slaugh ter performance of Black-and-Tan rabbits with New Zealand White rabbits do not indicate that the Black-and-Tan breed is inferior in these traits. The meat obtained from Black-and-Tan rabbits is also of high quality, comparable to that attributed to rabbits of typical meat breeds. In addition, Black-and-Tan rabbits can be a valuable component for commercial crossbreeding, significantly improving the rearing results, slaughter performance and meat quality of the crosses.
  • PozycjaOpen Access
    Yield components of spring triticale as affected by cultivar and multi-nutrient fertiliser type and rate
    (Wydawnictwo Uczelniane Zachodniopomorskiego Uniwersytetu Technologicznego w Szczecinie, 2024-03-01) Rzążewska, Emilia; Gąsiorowska, Barbara; Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Institute of Agriculture and Horticulture, Siedlce, Poland; Vocational State School of Ignacy Mościcki in Ciechanów, Faculty of Engineering and Economics, Ciechanów, Poland.
    A field experiment was conducted throughout the years 2017–2019 at Borki-Wyrki, Zbuczyn Gmina (commune). The study aimed at determining productive ear number, grain number per ear, grain weight per ear and 1000 grain weight of two spring triticale cultivars according to fertiliser type and rate, the fertiliser being either Polifoska 6 or Polifoska Krzem. The following three experimental factors were investigated in the experiment: the main factor – spring triticale cultivar (Milewo, Dublet), the sub-plot factor – mineral fertiliser type (Polifoska 6, Polifoska Krzem), the sub-sub-plot factor – mineral fertiliser rate (0 kg∙ha−1, 140 kg∙ha−1, 280 kg∙ha−1, 420 kg∙ha−1). Fertiliser rates increased pro ductive ear number compared to unfertilised control. Fertiliser type significantly affected grain number per ear. An application of Polifoska Krzem was followed by increased grain number per ear in spring triticale. Grain weight per one ear was significantly affected cultivars. Cv. Milewo had a higher number of grains per ear compared with cv. Dublet. Spring triticale grain harvested from units fertilised with Polifoska 6 had a higher 1000 grain weight. Cv. Dublet developed more robust grain compared with cv. Milewo.
  • PozycjaOpen Access
    Management and monitoring of plant protection products in agriculture with regard to human and animal health
    (Wydawnictwo Uczelniane Zachodniopomorskiego Uniwersytetu Technologicznego w Szczecinie, 2024-03-01) Pilarczyk, Maria; Konodyba-Rorat, Bogna; Faculty of Management, Częstochowa University of Technology, Częstochowa, Poland; Faculty of Management, Częstochowa University of Technology, Częstochowa, Poland
    The management and monitoring of plant protection products in agriculture involve the proper application of these products in appropriate doses and timings, monitoring their effectiveness, and minimizing their negative impact on the environment. Human health and environmental safety depend on the decisions made by farmers who use plant protection products in their production. In Poland, chemical agents are the most used tools for crop protection in the field. The European Union has very strict regulations and legal frameworks aimed at safeguarding human and animal health as well as the environment. There are specific regulations concerning the registration, application, sale, and monitoring of plant protection products under the EU’s policy. Relevant regulations and legal acts govern the permissible levels of plant protection product residues in food. Proper management of these products at the legislative level and during their application will contribute to reducing their adverse effects on human and animal health.
  • PozycjaOpen Access
    Interactions between Light Intensity and Drought Stress and their Influence on the Growth of Wheat Seedlings
    (Wydawnictwo Uczelniane Zachodniopomorskiego Uniwersytetu Technologicznego w Szczecinie, 2023) Matuszak-Slamani, Renata; Ulan, Maciej; Department of Bioengineering, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Poland
    In this paper, wheat seedlings were exposed to different levels of photon flux density (PFD) and drought stress. Seedlings of the wheat cv. Goplana were cultivated in controlled conditions in a miniphytotrone and exposed to three different photosynthetic photon flux densities (400, 800, and 1200 μmol⋅m−2⋅s−1) and drought stress (a water potential of −0.6 MPa). The Hoagland’s solution-treated seedlings served as a control. The fresh and dry matter of the overground parts and roots, relative chlorophyll concentration, electrical conductivity and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were measured. Drought stress decreased the biomass of wheat seedlings, cv. Goplana. Higher intensities of photosynthetically active irradiation stimulated biomass growth both under control conditions and under drought stress. Drought and higher PFD intensity resulted in a decrease in chlorophyll content. Only the highest light intensity, together with drought stress, negatively affected the structure of cell membranes, increasing their permeability. Both of the applied stress factors did not cause significant changes in the values of the determined parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence in the leaves of wheat seedlings. These results suggest that the increase in light intensity has a mobilising effect on the plant, stimulating the development of biomass both under control conditions and under drought stress. No changes in the values of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters under the influence of different light intensities and drought stress may indicate that there were no significant disturbances in the course of the light phase of photosynthesis in the leaves of the tested seedlings.
  • PozycjaOpen Access
    Characteristics of the MC1R Gene as a Locus e Affecting Coat Color in Dog
    (Wydawnictwo Uczelniane Zachodniopomorskiego Uniwersytetu Technologicznego w Szczecinie, 2023) Kowalewska, Inga; Department of Genetics, Faculty of Biotechnology and Animal Breeding, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
    The color of dogs is the result of various genes that control the pigmentation of the coat mainly. There are many genes that influence the color, pattern and distribution of fur in dogs, one of which is the gene encoding the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), also known as the E locus. The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is a protein that plays a key role in the regulation of skin, hair and eye pigmentation in animals. This receptor is responsible for the processing of peptide hormones that control the production of melanin, which is the pigment of the skin and fur. Mutations within this gene can affect the color of animals, including dogs. The main alleles identified and described for the E locus are: E (wild type), E^M (melanistic mask) and e (recessive red); they are widespread in various dog breeds, indicating that they existed at an early stage in the formation of individual breed groups. The other identified alleles are less common and are: E^G (grizzle/domino), e^2 (only among Australian Cattle Dogs and their crossbreds) and e^3 (only among Siberian Huskies and their crossbreds), e^A (ancient red) allele and the allele E^H (only among English Cocker Spaniels and American Cocker Spaniels). Of course, it’s important to remember that dog color is a complex genetic phenomenon that can be controlled by many different genes working together, and that the variety of coat colors in different dog breeds results from a combination of these genes.
  • PozycjaOpen Access
    Evaluation of the Guality of Green Fodder Obtained from Mixtures of Narrowleaf Lupin with Spring Triticale
    (Wydawnictwo Uczelniane Zachodniopomorskiego Uniwersytetu Technologicznego, 2023) Górski, Rafał; Płaza, Anna; Faculty of Engineering and Economics, Ignacy Mościcki State University of Applied Sciences in Ciechanów, Ciechanów, Poland; Institute of Agriculture and Horticulture, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Siedlce, Siedlce, Poland
    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the share of components in the mixture of narrowleaf lupin with spring triticale and the harvest stage on the quality of green fodder for livestock. Two factors were analysed in a three-year experiment: Share of components in the mixture at sowing narrowleaf lupin + spring triticale (seed·m−2): 120 + 0, 90 + 150, 60 + 300, 30 + 450, 0 + 600, harvesting stage: I – narrowleaf lupin flowering stage, II – narrowleaf lupin flat green pod stage. The most favourable quality of green fodder was obtained from narrowleaf lupine, while among the mixtures from the mixture with the highest share of narrowleaf lupine at seed sowing. These crops were characterised by the lowest concentration of crude fibre and its fractions and the highest digestibility, dry matter intake and relative feed value. The harvesting of mixtures at the narrowleaf lupin flowering stage proved to be more favourable in terms of the quality of the green fodder obtained. In order to obtain valuable fodder for livestock, the cultivation of mixtures with a seed share at sowing of 90 + 150 of narrow-leafed lupine and spring triticale, respectively, should be recommended.
  • PozycjaOpen Access
    Comparative Studies of Reproductive and Meat Performance of the Local Breed of Polish Red Cattle against the Background of the Limousine Breed of Polish and French Heritage
    (Wydawnictwo Uczelniane Zachodniopomorskiego Uniwersytetu Technologicznego w Szczecinie, 2023) Wiśniewski, Konrad; Kuczyńska , Beata; Department of Animal Breeding, Institute of Animal Science, Warsaw University of Life Science, Warsaw, Poland; Department of Animal Breeding, Institute of Animal Science, Warsaw University of Life Science, Warsaw, Poland
    The aim of the study was to compare of the reproductive and meat performance of meat breeds, such as the local Polish Red cattle and the Limousine cattle breed, which is dominant in Poland. The examined individuals of the Limousine breed, which were divided into two groups depending on the origin of the parents, the so-called Polish and French. The criterion for assigning the animals to the group of Polish origin was that the tested bulls did not have in their pedigree a descendant of the French line for two generations. Three groups of fatteners with 138 Polish Red bulls and 447 French and 478 Polish Limousin bulls were used to assess meat performance. All animals were kept in an extensive production system, using the pasture at will throughout the year, during the so-called peak season. At the end, they were fed additionally with haylage and concentrated feed. Reproductive parameters (type of calving and viability of calves) were assessed in 348 Polish Limousin cows, 367 French cows and 289 Polish Red cows. Calves were observed and measured throughout their life cycle from birth to slaughter. In the assessment of the utility value of meat, reference features were taken into account, e.g. body weight after calving, body weight at 210 and 420 days of age and gains, height at withers and chest circumference, and conformation assessment. The PRC group showed significantly greater ease of calving and vitality of calves compared to both groups of limousines. Calf and adult body weight measurements at 210 and 420 days were significantly higher in French Limousine cattle. Differences in body weight and gain were significant. There was a slight difference in height between Polish and French bulls. Native breed cattle were characterized by very good reproductive parameters and satisfactory meat performance characteristics in relation to the use of grassland fodder. Beef producers can be successfully recommended to use Polish Red cattle for meat purposes in an extensive production system.
  • PozycjaOpen Access
    Opinions of Students of Selected Areas of Study on Food Security and Food Safety
    (Wydawnictwo Uczelniane Zachodniopomorskiego Uniwersytetu Technologicznego w Szczecinie, 2023) Biesiada-Drzazga, Barbara; Banaszewska, Dorota; Andraszek, Katarzyna; Zaremba, Urszula; Kaim, Sabina; Institute of Bioengineering and Animal Breeding, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Siedlce, Poland; Institute of Bioengineering and Animal Breeding, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Siedlce, Poland; Institute of Bioengineering and Animal Breeding, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Siedlce, Poland; Institute of Bioengineering and Animal Breeding, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Siedlce, Poland; Institute of Bioengineering and Animal Breeding, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Siedlce, Poland
    In every country and on every continent, food security is one of the most important and even fundamental human needs, and thus feeding people should be an overriding goal at the international, national, and even household level. Food security involves meeting three conditions – physical access to food, economic access to food, and production of healthy food ensuring a nutritionally optimal diet. The aim of the study was to assess basic knowledge of food security and safety among students of agriculture and medicine at the global and household level. The survey found a satisfactory level of knowledge on the subject of the research. Students indicate differences in the concepts of food security and safety as well as variation in economic access to food and the need to eliminate it. They indicate the causes of hunger and malnutrition, and particularly the need to ensure production of safe food. Most respondents regarded food security in their households as satisfactory and stated that an increase in income does not necessarily lead to an increase in expenditures on food. Irrespective of their area of study, the survey participants correctly identified the main causes of hunger and malnutrition in the world, as well as the regions and countries in which these phenomena occur. The main causes of hunger and malnutrition in the world were considered to be the increase in the population, authoritarian systems of government and associated armed conflicts, and unfair distribution of food.