Potential Contamination of Soybean Agrophytocenosis Depending on the System of Farming and Soil Tillage
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This work presents the results of the study of changes of the potential contamination of soybean agrophytocenosis in grain-row crop rotation by using different systems of farming and typical black soil tillage. It was established that in the upper 0–5 cm layer of soil there are on average 393–671 million pieces of weed seeds. which is 33.6–43.0% of the total number in the layer of soil 0–20 cm. It was established that the use of periodical moldboard and superficial basic soil tillage had no impact on reducing the potential contamination of typical black soil compared to the variant of differentiated tillage. During subsurface plowing the total number of seeds in the soil layer 0–20 cm increased by 13.5–25.8% compared to differentiated tillage. In the variants of ecological and biological farming systems the number of weed seeds in the layer 0–5 cm was 11.3–19.6% higher compared to the intensive farming system. Based on monitoring of the species composition of the weed seeds bank it was established that in the arable layer of the soil the largest share are annual dicotyledonous – 48–62%. annual monocotyledonous – 30.2–44.6%. perennial – 0.9–3.3% of the total number. It was proved that under the intensive system of farming the yield of soybean variety Silesia increased on average from 10.2 to 147% compared to the ecological and biological system of farming. During the biological system of farming soybean yield did not exceed 1.0–1.8 t/ha. Therefore. the industrial and ecological system of farming had the greatest impact on reducing the potential weediness of the soybean agrocenosis during the growing season. During the biological system of farming crop yields decrease due to the accumulation of weed seeds in the topsoil and formation of high actual weediness of the soybean agrocenosis.
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